Approved Projects

FEMA considers the following mitigation measures to be cost-effective if the measures do not exceed 100 percent of the eligible repair cost (prior to any insurance reductions). The mitigation measures must meet all eligibility requirements described by FEMA. There may be instances where these measures are required by codes or standards. In such cases FEMA first evaluates whether the work is eligible as a code or standard upgrade.

Drainage Structures:

  • Replace the structure with multiple structures or a larger structure. The Applicant may use existing State, Territorial, Tribal, or local drainage criteria for sizing replacement culverts. The Applicant must consider replacement structures with regard to a total drainage system and cannot upgrade structures without a watershed hydrology study with an emphasis on downstream effects and National Flood Insurance Program
  • For the purpose of erosion control, add properly designed entrance and exit structures, such as a headwall, wingwalls, flared aprons, or energy dissipation measures to increase efficiency and help to minimize scour and erosion. Depending on the severity of erosion, , solutions for bank protection may include gabion baskets, rip rap, cast-in-place concrete, crushed stone or rock, grouted rip rap, sheet-piling, geotextile fabric, or similar measures to control erosion. Alternatively, the use of vegetation or a combination of vegetation and construction materials such as live fascines, vegetated geogrids, live cribwalls, brushmattresses, root wads, or similar measures are eligible. The Applicant should consider using green infrastructure techniques such as bioswales, bioretention, rain gardens and similar techniques that may be used in public drainage



  • Culverts
    • Where the alignment of a culvert is inconsistent with existing water flow, realign the culvert vertically or horizontally or relocate the culvert to improve hydraulics and minimize erosion and scour. The applicant must consider realignment of the structures with regard to a total drainage system and cannot replace structures without a watershed hydrology study with an emphasis on downstream erosion effects.
    • Extend the culvert discharge to mitigate erosion and scour by extending the discharge end beyond the toe of the embankment.
    • Install a debris barrier to prevent debris blockage or fins designed to orient floating debris for passage through the culvert.
    • Install a debris barrier riser to allow debris to float up with the rising floodwaters without blocking flow into the culvert.

Transportation Facilities:


  • Where traffic counts are low, replace with low-water
  • Install cables to restrain a bridge from being knocked off piers or abutments during floods or
  • Install girder and deck uplift tie-downs to prevent their displacement from the substructure.
  • Install Longitudinal Peaked Stone Toe Protection with nature planting, upstream of a failed abutment, to provide a stable floodplain bench for the protection of the abutment and the adjoining bridge approach. Consider other relevant Bio- engineering applications such as engineered logjams, log vanes or log bendway weir.

Marine Pier Ramps: If attached to decking, install open decking or floating decking with uplift resistant tie-downs and fasteners.

Roadways and Railways: Where shoulders are susceptible to overflow from adjacent water courses, stabilize shoulders and embankments with geotextile fabric and revetments.

Roadways: Use geotextile drainage blankets between the pavement section and subbase to strengthen subgrade.


Mechanical, Electrical, Plumbing (MEP) Components

  • Provide seismic bracing for electrical lines, conduit, piping, duct-work, water heaters, and other MEP equipment. Components can be wall mounted, floor mounted, or suspended.
  • Roof-Mounted Equipment: Secure to roof top via a continuous load path, using tie- downs, straps, or other anchoring systems that will resist expected wind forces.
  • Elevate or dry floodproof components or systems vulnerable to flood damage, including equipment controls, electrical panels; heating, ventilation, and air conditioning/machinery rooms; emergency generators; and fuel tanks. When wiring cannot be elevated, replace with equipment suitable for submerged applications.
  • Install switches, circuit isolation and/or quick connect capability to facilitate rapid connection of backup power for any damaged or susceptible mechanical and electrical components.
  • Install camlocks, transfer switches, and electrical panels to facilitate the connection of portable emergency generators.


  • Install pipe joint restraints, flexible piping at pipe/conduit connections, or replace pipes with more ductile material.
  • Install continuous lining or encasement to prevent infiltration or structural collapse.
  • Underground Pipes: Install shut-off valves so that damaged sections of pipe can be isolated.


  • Pumps: If pumps and their attached motors are damaged by storm water inundation, replace them with submersible or inline pumps as appropriate.
  • Sewer Access Covers: Elevate to the hydraulic grade line. When elevation is not feasible or practicable, install devices to prevent infiltration into access holes such as cast iron watertight frames and covers.
  • Well Systems: Seal exposed portions of well casing or raise the elevation of the well head to prevent infiltration of flood waters.
  • Raw water intakes: Install buttressing to prevent damage from erosion, scour, and flood debris.

Electric Power Systems:

  • Provide looped distribution service or other redundancies in the electrical service to critical facilities, such as hospitals and fire stations.
  • Install surge suppressors and lightning arrestors.
  • Transformers:
    • Elevate pad transformers above the Base Flood Elevation.
    • Support pole-mounted transformers with multiple poles.
  • Power Poles:
    • Replace damaged poles with higher-rated poles (preferably two classes stronger) of the same or different material. When replacing poles with higher-rated poles, install guys and anchors to provide lateral support for poles supporting pole- mounted transformers, regulators, capacitor banks, reclosers, air-break switches, or other electrical distribution equipment.
    • Remove large diameter lines.
    • Add cross-bracing to H-frame poles to provide additional strength.
    • Power Lines: Add guy-wires or additional support.

Storage Tanks:

  • Anchor or otherwise protect from movement by strengthening or stiffening base connections.
  • Install self-initiating disconnects and shut-off values between tanks and distribution lines to minimize damage and leaks.

Buildings and Structures:

  • For small support buildings subject to uplift or rollover from high winds, securely anchor the buildings to foundations to prevent toppling or becoming missile hazards.
  • Dry or wet floodproof buildings.
  • Footings: Where spread footings have been undercut by scour, underpin footings.
  • Siding: Replace with a stronger siding with stronger attachments to the wall sheathing and structure.
  • Vents: Replace with water-resistant vents.
  • Non-structural Building Components: Brace interior walls, partitions, parapets, anchor veneer or cladding, suspended light features, drop ceilings, soffits, and other non- structural elements that could collapse and cause injury or block safe exit of a building during an earthquake or high-wind event.
  • Furnishings: Provide seismic ties, straps, or clips to secure replaced furniture, cabinets, computers, bookcases, and other furnishings.
  • Roofs
    • Install hurricane clips, fasteners, anchors, straps, and connectors that are compatible with the roof system and corrosion-resistant in coastal areas.Roofs
    • Strengthen the high-wind pressure areas (e.g., corner zones, roof soffits, overhangs).
    • Strengthen roof openings, such as hatches and skylights.
    • Low Slope Roofs: Replace entire roof with a roof covering with a secondary membrane and a fully adhered roof covering, such as modified bitumen. Mechanically fastened insulation or membranes are not acceptable.
    • Gable Roofs: Replace the gable-end framing with hipped roof framing to reduce wind forces (lower edge pressure; reduced projected wind area) and strengthen the roof framing.
    • Gutters and Downspouts: Upgrade to direct water away from the structure to prevent interior or basement water damage.

Doors and Windows:

  • Upgrade the weather stripping to prevent water infiltration.
  • Replace doors, door frames, hinges, and hardware with wind-resistant units.
  • Strengthen windows.
  • Replace glass with impact-resistant material.
  • Install shutters on windows:
    • Of critical facilities, such as hospitals.
    • On the lower floors of non-critical facilities most likely to be struck by debris.
    • Of buildings with very high-value contents that can be damaged by water (such as libraries and document centers).
    • Of buildings where failure of roofing materials or other portions of nearby structures could create impact hazards.


  • Replace sign panels and their supports with a stronger type of system of supports and panels. Consider using multiple support posts and stronger panels and
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